The Spacing Effect And How It Can Help Learning
A Brain Quirk with Surprising Implications for Learning
Picture this: You're studying for an important exam, flipping through stacks of flashcards. You feel like you're making progress, but then you notice that the information isn't sticking as well as you thought. What's going on here? Well, this phenomenon could be related to the "Gap Effect" and the "Spacing Effect," two cognitive quirks that affect our learning in more ways than you might imagine.
The Gap Effect refers to the delay in initiating an action when a visual gap or space is present, and the Spacing Effect refers to the finding that learning is more effective when studying is spread out over time, rather than being crammed into a single session (Cepeda, Pashler, Vul, Wixted, & Rohrer, 2006). These phenomena may seem unrelated, but in fact, they're both connected to the way our brain processes information and can provide valuable insights into how we can improve our learning techniques.
First, let's talk about the role of our eyes in the Gap Effect. Our eyes make swift movements called "saccades" to help us shift our attention and focus on different stimuli (Leigh & Zee, 2015). The delay in initiating an action, like reading a flashcard or recalling an answer, is closely related to the timing of these saccadic eye movements (Saslow, 1967).
But how does this relate to learning? The Gap Effect influences our ability to switch our attention between different pieces of information. When we're studying, we need to be able to efficiently shift our focus from one topic or concept to another. The Gap Effect can help us understand why our brains sometimes struggle to keep up when we're trying to cram a lot of information in a short period.
Now, let's dive into the Spacing Effect. Numerous studies have shown that spacing out learning sessions leads to better retention and understanding of the material (Cepeda et al., 2006). This is because our brains need time to consolidate and organize the information we've learned. The Spacing Effect is thought to be related to the encoding variability hypothesis, which posits that varied learning contexts lead to multiple retrieval cues, thereby enhancing memory performance (Glenberg, 1979).
So, how do the Gap Effect and the Spacing Effect work together to impact our learning? By understanding the way our brains process information and the importance of spacing out our study sessions, we can optimize our learning strategies.
For instance, when we're studying, we should be mindful of the Gap Effect and give our brains a brief pause between different topics or concepts. This allows our attention to disengage from the previous stimulus and re-engage with the new one (Fischer & Breitmeyer, 1987). Furthermore, we can harness the power of the Spacing Effect by breaking up our study sessions into smaller chunks and spreading them out over time, rather than cramming all at once.
In conclusion, the Gap Effect and the Spacing Effect are two fascinating cognitive phenomena that can teach us a lot about how our brains process and retain information. By understanding the way these effects work and adapting our learning strategies accordingly, we can improve our ability to learn and remember new information, setting ourselves up for success in our academic and professional pursuits.
Cepeda, N. J., Pashler, H., Vul, E., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(3), 354-380.
Fischer, B., & Breitmeyer, B. (1987). Mechanisms of visual attention revealed by saccadic eye movements. Neuropsychologia, 25(1A), 73-83.
Glenberg, A. M. (1979). Component-levels theory of the effects of spacing of repetitions on recall and recognition. Memory & Cognition, 7(2), 95-112.
Leigh, R. J., & Zee, D. S. (2015). The neurology of eye movements (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.
Saslow, M. G. (1967). Effects of components of displacement-step stimuli upon latency for saccadic eye movement. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 57(8), 1024-1029.